Pennsylvania Brain & Spine Institute accepts most major insurances including Aetna, Cigna, Highmark, United, and UPMC Health Plans.
Pennsylvania Brain & Spine Institute accepts most major insurances including Aetna, Cigna, Highmark, United, and UPMC Health Plans.
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Pennsylvania Brain & Spine Institute Logo
Butler/Seneca/Beaver: 1 (855) 365-7274

Stroke/Stroke Management

What is Stroke?

A stroke occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is suddenly interrupted or when a blood vessel in the brain bursts, spilling blood into the spaces surrounding brain cells. Brain cells die when they no longer receive oxygen and nutrients from the blood, or there is sudden bleeding into or around the brain. The symptoms of a stroke include sudden numbness or weakness, especially on one side of the body; sudden confusion or trouble speaking or understanding speech; sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes; sudden trouble with walking, dizziness, or loss of balance or coordination; or sudden severe headache with no known cause. There are two forms of stroke: ischemic - blockage of a blood vessel supplying the brain, and hemorrhagic - bleeding into or around the brain.

Stroke treatments

Generally there are three treatment stages for stroke: prevention, therapy immediately after the stroke, and post-stroke rehabilitation. Therapies to prevent a first or recurrent stroke are based on treating an individual's underlying risk factors for stroke, such as hypertension, atrial fibrillation, and diabetes. Acute stroke therapies try to stop a stroke while it is happening by quickly dissolving the blood clot causing an ischemic stroke or by stopping the bleeding of a hemorrhagic stroke. Post-stroke rehabilitation helps individuals overcome disabilities that result from stroke damage. Medication or drug therapy is the most common treatment for stroke. The most popular classes of drugs used to prevent or treat stroke are antithrombotics (antiplatelet agents and anticoagulants) and thrombolytics.

What is the prognosis?

Although stroke is a disease of the brain, it can affect the entire body. A common disability that results from stroke is complete paralysis on one side of the body, called hemiplegia. A related disability that is not as debilitating as paralysis is one-sided weakness or hemiparesis. Stroke may cause problems with thinking, awareness, speech, attention, learning, judgment, and memory. Stroke survivors often have problems understanding or forming speech. A stroke can lead to emotional problems. Stroke patients may have difficulty controlling their emotions or may express inappropriate emotions. Many stroke patients experience depression. Stroke survivors may also have numbness or strange sensations. The pain is often worse in the hands and feet and is made worse by movement and temperature changes, especially cold temperatures. Recurrent stroke is frequent; about 25 percent of people who recover from their first stroke will have another stroke within 5 years.

Thrombolysis is the procedure of using drugs to dissolve blood clots in the body, often used to treat stroke. With thrombolysis, clot-dissolving medications are given into an arm vein or by an IV catheter threaded through a leg vein to the clot. Medication is injected into the clot through tiny holes in the catheter. Sometimes suction is used to clean out the pieces of clot. For stroke, prompt treatment within 3 or 4 hours of symptom presentation is the key to a better outcome.

Thrombolysis

Thrombolysis is the procedure of using drugs to dissolve blood clots in the body, often used to treat stroke. With thrombolysis, clot-dissolving medications are given into an arm vein or by an IV catheter threaded through a leg vein to the clot. Medication is injected into the clot through tiny holes in the catheter. Sometimes suction is used to clean out the pieces of clot. For stroke, prompt treatment within 3 or 4 hours of symptom presentation is the key to a better outcome.

Thrombolysis suggests the use of thrombolytic drugs. Some commonly used thrombolytics are:

  • streptokinase
  • urokinase
  • Recombinant tissue plasminogen activators
    • alteplase (rtPA)
    • reteplase
    • tenecteplase

Videos

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